The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy torpedo boats, on June 8, 1967, during the Six-Day War.[2]

The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members (naval officers, seamen, two Marines, and one civilian), wounded 170 crew members, and severely damaged the ship.[3] At the time, the ship was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula, about 25.5 nmi (29.3 mi; 47.2 km) northwest from the Egyptian city of Arish.[1][4]

Both the Israeli and U.S. governments conducted inquiries and issued reports that concluded the attack was a mistake due to Israeli confusion about the identity of the USS Liberty.[5] Some survivors, in addition to some U.S. diplomats and intelligence officials involved in the incident continue to dispute these official findings, saying the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty was not a mistake,[6] and it remains “the only maritime incident in U.S. history where [U.S.] military forces were killed that was never investigated by the [U.S.] Congress.”[7]

In May 1968, the Israeli government paid US$3,323,500 as full payment to the families of the 34 men killed in the attack. In March 1969, Israel paid a further $3,566,457 in compensation to the men who had been wounded. On 18 December 1980, it agreed to pay $6 million as settlement for the U.S. claim of $7,644,146 for material damage to the Liberty itself.[8]

On December 17, 1987, the issue was officially closed by the two governments through an exchange of diplomatic notes.[9]

Many intelligence and military officials dispute Israel’s explanation.[48]

Dean Rusk, U.S. Secretary of State at the time of the incident, wrote:

I was never satisfied with the Israeli explanation. Their sustained attack to disable and sink Liberty precluded an assault by accident or some trigger-happy local commander. Through diplomatic channels we refused to accept their explanations. I didn’t believe them then, and I don’t believe them to this day. The attack was outrageous.[49]

Retired naval Lieutenant Commander James Ennes, a junior officer (and off-going Officer of the Deck) on Liberty‘s bridge at the time of the attack, authored a book titled Assault on the Liberty (Random House, 1980; Ballantine Books 1986; Reintree Press 2004) describing the incident during the Six Day War in June 1967 and claiming, among other things, it was deliberate. Ennes and Joe Meadors, another survivor of the attack, run a website[50] about the incident. Meadors states that the classification of the attack as deliberate is the official policy of the USS Liberty Veterans Association,[51] to which survivors and other former crew members belong. Other survivors run several additional websites. Citing Ennes’s book, Lenczowski notes: Liberty‘s personnel received firm orders not to say anything to anybody about the attack, and the naval inquiry was conducted in such a way as to earn it the name of “coverup”.[39]

In 2002, Captain Ward Boston, JAGC, U.S. Navy, senior counsel for the Court of Inquiry, claimed that the Court of Inquiry’s findings were intended to cover up what was a deliberate attack by Israel on a ship it knew to be American. In 2004, in response to the publication of Jay Cristol’s book The Liberty Incident, which Boston claimed was an “insidious attempt to whitewash the facts” he prepared and signed an affidavit[52] in which he claimed that Admiral Kidd had told him that the government ordered Kidd to falsely report that the attack was a mistake, and that he and Kidd both believed the attack was deliberate. On the issue Boston wrote, in part:

The evidence was clear. Both Admiral Kidd and I believed with certainty that this attack, which killed 34 American sailors and injured 172 others, was a deliberate effort to sink an American ship and murder its entire crew. Each evening, after hearing testimony all day, we often spoke our private thoughts concerning what we had seen and heard. I recall Admiral Kidd repeatedly referring to the Israeli forces responsible for the attack as ‘murderous bastards.’ It was our shared belief, based on the documentary evidence and testimony we received first hand, that the Israeli attack was planned and deliberate, and could not possibly have been an accident.

Cristol wrote about Boston’s professional qualifications and integrity, on page 149 of his book:

Boston brought two special assets in addition to his skill as a Navy lawyer. He had been a naval aviator in World War II and therefore had insight beyond that of one qualified only in the law. Also, Kidd knew him as a man of integrity. On an earlier matter Boston had been willing to bump heads with Kidd when Boston felt it was more important to do the right thing than to curry favor with the senior who would write his fitness report.

Cristol believes that Boston is not telling the truth about Kidd’s views and any pressure from the U.S. government.[4] A. Jay Cristol, who also served as an officer of the U.S. Navy’s Judge Advocate General, suggests that Boston was responsible in part for the original conclusions of the Court of Inquiry, and that by later declaring that they were false he has admitted to “lying under oath.” Cristol also notes that Boston’s claims about pressure on Kidd were hearsay, and that Kidd was not alive to confirm or deny them. He also notes that Boston did not maintain prior to his affidavit and comments related to it that Kidd spoke of such instructions to him or to others. Finally, he provides a handwritten 1991 letter from Admiral Kidd[53] that, according to Cristol, “suggest that Ward Boston has either a faulty memory or a vivid imagination”.

The Anti-Defamation League supports Cristol’s opinion:

… according to his own account, Boston’s evidence of a cover-up derives not from his own part in the investigation but solely on alleged conversations with Admiral Kidd, who purportedly told him he was forced to find that the attack was unintentional. Kidd died in 1999 and there is no way to verify Boston’s allegations. However, Cristol argues that the ‘documentary record’ strongly indicated that Kidd ‘supported the validity of the findings of the Court of Inquiry to his dying day.’[54]

However, according to James Ennes, Admiral Kidd urged him and his group to keep pressing for an open congressional probe.[55]

The following arguments, found in official reports or other sources, were published to support that the attack was due to mistaken identity:

  • Accidents do occur in wartime. The day before the attack on the Liberty, Israeli aircraft had bombed an Israeli armored column south of the West Bank town of Jenin, demonstrating such mistakes do happen.[56]
  • The incident took place during the Six Day War when Israel was engaged in battles with two Arab countries and preparing to attack a third, creating an environment where mistakes and confusion were prevalent. For example, at 11:45, a few hours before the attack, there was a large explosion on the shores of El-Arish followed by black smoke, probably caused by the destruction of an ammunition dump by retreating Egyptian forces. The Israeli army thought the area was being bombarded, and that an unidentified ship offshore was responsible. (According to U.S. sources, Liberty was 14 nmi (16 mi; 26 km) from those shores at the time of the explosion.)
  • As the torpedo boats rapidly approached, Liberty opened fire on them. This was after the aerial attacks. At the inquiry, Commander McGonagle expressed that the torpedo boats appeared to be approaching in an attack formation. Thus, he sent a person to the forward machine gun to fire at them. After several shots were fired, McGonagle ordered cease fire. Then a machine gun on 03 level sounded like it was firing, but nobody was seen at the gun. McGonagle said that he felt sure the torpedo boat captains believed they were under fire from the Liberty. Ensign Lucas, the ship’s gunnery officer who left the bridge shortly after the beginning of the air attack and then returned during the torpedo boat attack, testified that he gave permission for manned firing of the 03 level machine gun after the torpedo boats began firing at Liberty. Then, later when the gun was unmanned, heat from a nearby fire apparently caused machine gun rounds at the 03 level gun to explode.[18]
  • Admiral Shlomo Erell, former head of the Israeli Navy in 1967, notes that no successful argument of benefit has been presented for Israel purposely attacking an American warship, especially considering the high cost of predictable complications that would follow after attacking a powerful ally, and the fact that Israel notified the American embassy immediately after the attack.[57]
 

Amidships starboard hull and superstructure attack damage.

Several books and the BBC documentary USS Liberty: Dead in the Water argued that Liberty was attacked in order to prevent the U.S. from knowing about the forthcoming attack in the Golan Heights, which apparently would violate a cease-fire to which Israel’s government had agreed.[5][dead link] Russian author Joseph Daichman, in his book “History of the Mossad” states Israel was justified in attacking the Liberty.[58] Israel knew that American radio signals were intercepted by the Soviet Union and that the Soviets would certainly inform Egypt of the fact that by moving troops to the Golan Heights. Israel had left the Egyptian border undefended.[59]

Lenczowski notes that while the Israeli decision to “attack and destroy” the ship “may appear puzzling”, the explanation seems to be found in Liberty‘s nature and its task to monitor communications on both sides in the war zone. He writes, “Israel clearly did not want the U.S. government to know too much about its dispositions for attacking Syria, initially planned for June 8, but postponed for 24 hours. It should be pointed out that the attack on the Liberty occurred on June 8, whereas on June 9 at 3 AM, Syria announced its acceptance of the cease-fire. Despite this, at 7 AM, that is, four hours later, Israel’s minister of defense, Moshe Dayan, “gave the order to go into action against Syria.”[60] He further writes that timely knowledge of this decision and preparatory moves toward it “might have frustrated Israeli designs for the conquest of Syria’s Golan Heights” and, in the sense of Ennes’s accusations, provides “a plausible thesis that Israel deliberately decided to incapacitate the signals-collecting American ship and leave no one alive to tell the story of the attack.”[61]

U.S. Ambassador to Israel, Barbour, had reported on the day of the Liberty attack that he “would not be surprised” by an Israeli attack on Syria, and the IDF Intelligence chief told a White House aide then in Israel that “there still remained the Syria problem and perhaps it would be necessary to give Syria a blow.”[62]

The 1981 book Weapons by Russell Warren Howe asserts that Liberty was accompanied by the Polaris armed Lafayette-class submarine USS Andrew Jackson, which filmed the entire episode through its periscope but was unable to provide assistance. According to Howe: “Two hundred feet below the ship, on a parallel course, was its ‘shadow’—the Polaris strategic submarine Andrew Jackson, whose job was to take out all the Israeli long-range missile sites in the Negev if Tel Aviv decided to attack Cairo, Damascus or Baghdad. This was in order that Moscow would not have to perform this task itself and thus trigger World War Three.”[63]

James Bamford, a former ABC News producer, in his 2001 book Body of Secrets,[64] proposes a different possible motive for a deliberate attack: to prevent the discovery of a massacre by the IDF of Egyptian prisoners of war that was supposedly taking place at the same time in the nearby town of El-Arish.[65] In 1995, mass graves of Egyptian soldiers were discovered outside of El-Arish, and IDF veterans have admitted that unarmed civilians and prisoners of war were murdered in the 1967 War.[6][7]

The press release for the BBC documentary film Dead in the Water states that new recorded and other evidence suggests the attack was a “daring ploy by Israel to fake an Egyptian attack” to give America a reason to enter the war against Egypt. Convinced that that attack was real, President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson launched nuclear-armed planes targeted against Cairo from a U.S. aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean. The planes were recalled only just in time, when it was clear the Liberty had not sunk and that Israel had carried out the attack. An information source for the aircraft being nuclear-armed, James Ennes, later stated that he was probably wrong in his original book. According to Ennes, the planes were not nuclear-armed, but most likely armed with Bullpup missiles.[66] The video also provides hearsay evidence of a covert alliance of U.S. and Israel intelligence agencies.[67]

Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and a critic of the official United States Government version of events, chaired a non-governmental investigation into the attack on the USS Liberty in 2003. The committee, which included former U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia James E. Akins, held Israel to be culpable and suggested several theories for Israel’s possible motives, including the desire to blame Egypt and bring the U.S. into the Six Day War.[68]

NSA tapes and recent developments

Within an hour of learning that the Liberty had been torpedoed the director of NSA, LTG Marshall S. Carter, sent a message to all intercept sites requesting a special search of all communications that might reflect the attack or reaction. No communications were available. However, one of the airborne platforms, a U.S. Navy EC-121 aircraft that flew near the attacks from 2:30 p.m. to 3:27 p.m., Sinai time (1230 to 1327 Z), had collected voice conversations between two Israeli helicopter pilots and the control tower at Hazor Airfield following the attack on the Liberty.[8]

On July 2, 2003, the National Security Agency released copies of the recordings made by the EC-121 and the resultant translations and summaries.[9] These revelations were elicited as part of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit by Florida bankruptcy judge and retired naval aviator Jay Cristol. Two linguists who were aboard the EC-121 when the recordings were made, however, have claimed separately that at least two additional tapes were made that have been excluded from the NSA releases up to and including a June 8, 2007, release.[6]

English transcripts of the released tapes indicate that Israel still believed it had hit an Egyptian supply ship even after the attack had stopped. [10] [11] After the attack, the rescue helicopters are heard relaying several urgent requests that the rescuers ask the first survivor pulled out of the water what his nationality is, and discussing whether the survivors from the attacked ship will speak Arabic. [12]

A summary report of the NSA-translated tapes [13] indicates that at 1234Z Hatzor air control began directing two Israeli Air Force helicopters to an Egyptian warship, to rescue its crew: “This ship has now been identified as Egyptian.” The helicopters arrived near the ship at about 1303Z: “I see a big vessel, near it are three small vessels…” At 1308Z, Hatzor air control indicated concern about the nationality of the ship’s crew: “The first matter to clarify is to find out what their nationality is.” At 1310Z, one of the helicopter pilots asked the nearby torpedo boats’ Division Commander about the meaning of the ship’s hull number: “GTR5 is written on it. Does this mean something?” The response was: “Negative, it doesn’t mean anything.” At 1312Z, one of the helicopter pilots was asked by air control: “Did you clearly identify an American flag?” No answer appears in the transcript, but the air controller then says: “We request that you make another pass and check once more if this is really an American flag.” Again, no response appears in the transcript. At about 1314Z, the helicopters were directed to return home.

The NSA reported that there had been no radio intercepts of the attack made by the Liberty herself, nor had there been any radio intercepts made by the U.S. submarine Amberjack.

On October 10, 2003, The Jerusalem Post ran an interview with Yiftah Spector, one of the pilots who participated in the attack,[69] and thought to be the lead pilot of the first wave of planes. Spector said the ship was assumed to be Egyptian, stating that: “I circled it twice and it did not fire on me. My assumption was that it was likely to open fire at me and nevertheless I slowed down and I looked and there was positively no flag.” The interview also contains the transcripts of the Israeli communications about the Liberty. The journalist who transcribed the tapes for that article, Arieh O’Sullivan, later confirmed that “the Israeli Air Force tapes he listened to contained blank spaces.”[6]

The Liberty‘s survivors contradict Spector. According to subsequently declassified NSA documents: “Every official interview of numerous Liberty crewmen gave consistent evidence that indeed the Liberty was flying an American flag—and, further, the weather conditions were ideal to ensure its easy observance and identification.”[70]

On June 8, 2005, the USS Liberty Veterans Association filed a “Report of War Crimes Committed Against the U.S. Military, June 8, 1967” with the Department of Defense (DoD). They say Department of Defense Directive 2311.01E requires the Department of Defense to conduct a thorough investigation of the allegations contained in their report. DoD has responded that a new investigation will not be conducted since a Navy Court of Inquiry already investigated the facts and circumstances surrounding the attack.

As of 2006, the National Security Agency (NSA) has yet to declassify “boxes and boxes” of Liberty documents. Numerous requests under both declassification directives and the Freedom of Information Act are pending in various agencies including the NSA, Central Intelligence Agency, and Defense Intelligence Agency.

“… On June 8, 2007, the National Security Agency released hundreds of additional declassified documents on the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty, a communications interception vessel, on June 8, 1967.” [14]

On October 2, 2007, The Chicago Tribune published a special report[6] into the attack, containing numerous previously unreported quotes from former military personnel with first-hand knowledge of the incident. Many of these quotes directly contradict the U.S. National Security Agency’s position that it never intercepted the communications of the attacking Israeli pilots, claiming that not only did transcripts of those communications exist, but also that it showed the Israelis knew they were attacking an American naval vessel.

Documents of the Israeli General Staff meetings, declassified in October 2008, show no discussion of a planned attack on an American ship.[71]

Details in dispute

 

The “Second Ensign” flown during the attack. Israel Defense Forces’ investigative reports say their pilots and torpedo boat commander saw no flags during the attack.

Many of the events surrounding the attack are the subject of controversy:

  • Visibility of American flag: The official Israeli reports say that the reconnaissance and fighter aircraft pilots, and the torpedo boat captains did not see any flag on Liberty. Official American reports say that the Liberty was flying her American flag before, during and after the attack. The only exception being a brief period in which one flag had been shot down and then replaced with a larger flag that measured approximately 13 ft (4.0 m) long. U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry finding number 2 states: “The calm conditions and slow speed of the ship may well have made the American flag difficult to identify.” And finding number 28 states: “Flat, calm conditions and the slow five knot patrol speed of LIBERTY in forenoon when she was being looked over initially may well have produced insufficient wind for steaming colors enough to be seen by pilots”.[15] The NSA History Report (page 41) states: “… every official interview of numerous Liberty crewmen gave consistent evidence that indeed the Liberty was flying an American flag—and, further, the weather conditions were ideal to ensure its easy observance and identification.”
  • U.S. crewmen’s perceptions of intent: Surviving crewmembers of the Liberty claim that Israel’s attack on the ship was “deliberate” and with full knowledge that the vessel was American. Israeli investigation and history reports agree that the attack was deliberate — but against what they believed was an Egyptian enemy vessel, not an American neutral vessel.
  • Distinctiveness of USS Liberty’s appearance: One major dispute is whether the Liberty would have been immediately recognized as a different ship from the Egyptian ship El Quseir. Admiral Tom Moorer stated that the Liberty was the most identifiable ship in the U.S. Navy and in an interview with the Washington Post stated: To suggest that they [the IDF] couldn’t identify the ship is … ridiculous. Anybody who could not identify the Liberty could not tell the difference between the White House and the Washington Monument. Israel states in its inquiry and history reports that the identification as the El Quseir was made by the torpedo boats while the Liberty was enveloped in smoke and was based on “The Red Book”, a guide to Arab fleets that did not include U.S. vessels.(Web site with images of both ships)
  • Identification markings: Liberty bore an eight-foot-high “5” and a four-foot-high “GTR” along either bow, clearly indicating her hull (or “pendant”) number (AGTR-5), and had 18-inch (460 mm)-high letters spelling the vessel’s name across the stern. These markings were not cursive Arabic script but in the Latin alphabet. Israeli pilots claim initially they were primarily concerned with ensuring the ship was a non-Israeli warship and that they ended the air attack when they noticed the Latin alphabet markings.[16]
  • Ship’s identification known during attack: A James Bamford book,[72] published in 2001, claimed that secret NSA intercepts recorded by an American EC-121 reconnaissance aircraft indicate that Israeli pilots had full knowledge they were attacking a U.S. vessel.[73] This 2001 proposition has played a significant role in the ongoing controversies about the incident, and continues to be widely cited. The tapes were later released by the National Security Agency in 2003 as a result of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit brought by Judge and author A. Jay Cristol. However, instead of the EC-121 attack tapes requested by the FOIA request, the tapes released contained post-attack communications of Israeli helicopter pilots, their ground controller, and someone on one of the torpedo boats. The helicopters were sent to the attack site to provide assistance after the air attack. The helicopter pilots noticed an American flag flying from the ship almost immediately upon their arrival at the attack site [17] and informed their controller. See other sources for a link to the NSA website with complete transcripts. The NSA Website denies that there are any U.S. recordings of the attack itself; although, this is disputed by several intelligence specialists who claim to have read the original transcripts.
  • Effort for identification: The American crew claims the attacking aircraft did not make identification runs over Liberty, but rather began to strafe immediately. Israel claims several identification passes were made. The Naval Court of Enquiry, based on the Israeli timeline of events, found “One may infer from the fact that within a period of approximately 15 minutes, the request was transmitted (for aircraft to be dispatched), received, a command decision made, aircraft dispatched, and the attack launched, that no significant time was expended in an effort to identify the ship from the air before the attack was launched.”[74]
  • Speed of the vessel: According to Israeli accounts, the torpedo boat made (admittedly erroneous) measurements that indicated the ship was steaming at 30 kn (35 mph; 56 km/h). Israeli naval doctrine at the time required that a ship traveling at that speed must be presumed to be a warship. A second boat calculated Liberty‘s speed to be 28 kn (32 mph; 52 km/h). The maximum sustained speed of Liberty was only 17.5 kn (20.1 mph; 32.4 km/h), 21 kn (24 mph; 39 km/h) being attainable by overriding the engine governors. According to Body of Secrets, by James Bamford, Liberty crewmen (including the Officer-of-the-Deck) and the Court of Enquiry findings the ship was steaming at 5 kn (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) at the time of the attack.
 

Commander W.L. McGonagle in his damaged cabin after the attack.

  • Motive: James Bamford, among others, says one possible motive was to prevent the United States from eavesdropping on Israeli military activities and monitoring the events taking place in nearby Gaza.[73] In a study of the incident concluding that there was insufficient evidence to support either accidental or deliberate attack, Colonel Peyton E. Smith wrote of the possibility that “The attack was most likely deliberate for reasons far too sensitive to be disclosed by the US (or) Israeli government and that the truth may never be known”.[75] Author and former crew member James M. Ennes theorized, in the epilogue of his book Assault on the Liberty, that the motive was to prevent the ship’s crew from monitoring radio traffic that might reveal Israel being the aggressor in its impending invasion of Syria, which the White House opposed. According to the Anti Defamation League “the argument that Israel knowingly attacked an American ship has always lacked a convincing motive”.[76]
  • Israeli aircraft markings: The USS Liberty Veterans Association says that the attacking Israeli aircraft were not marked,[51] but a crewmember recalls watching a Jewish officer cry on seeing the blue Star of David on the planes’ fuselages.[6] (There are no international treaties governing aerial warfare requiring markings.)[77] The torpedo boats that attacked Liberty did fly the flag of Israel.[78]
  • Jamming: During U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry testimony, Wayne L. Smith, Radioman Chief, testified: “… We did have [radio frequency] jamming in my estimation. I was unable to determine this exactly, but every time it seems when an attack was made on us, or a strafing run, it was preceded by, anywhere from 25 to 30 seconds, carrier on our HICOM circuit, and I had ascertained to check this by calling the transmitter room and they said that they had not keyed the transmitter. This prevailed during the attack and quite a bit after the attack, intermittently.” In a U.S. Navy message dated July 11, 1967, sent by Rear Admiral Kidd (senior member of Naval Court of Inquiry) via the Naval Communications Unit, Naples, Italy to Commander in Chief U.S. Navy Europe and Chief Naval Operations, Rear Admiral Kidd stated, in part: “LIBERTY REPORTED APPARENT DISCRIMINATE JAMMING ON CERTAIN CW AND VOICE CIRCUITS JUST BEFORE AND DURING EACH AIRCRAFTS INDIVIDUAL ATTACK. EFFECT WAS TO SCARE MISCHIEF OUT OF THOSE BELOW WHO HEARD IT START, BECAUSE THEY KNEW A ROCKET OR BOMB WOULD SOON FOLLOW.” None of the Israeli Defense Forces’ investigations or reports confirm or deny radio frequency jamming was performed during or following the attack.
  • Visual communications: Joe Meadors, the signalman on bridge, states that “Immediately prior to the torpedo attack, he was on the Signal Bridge repeatedly sending ‘USS Liberty U.S. Navy Ship’ by flashing light to the torpedo boats.” The Israeli boats claim to have sent the signal “AA” (general call) for which the formal reply would be TTTT later followed by both vessels sending identification codes. Commander Moshe Oren claims he thought Liberty signaled AA in reply, which was the same reply he received from the Egyptian destroyer Ibrahim Al-Awal eleven years earlier. Oren then consulted “The Red Book” (identification of Arabian navies) noting that the only match for the “old tub” with one funnel and two masts was the El Quseir. Meadors claims he never sent “AA”.[79]
  • Israeli ships’ actions after the torpedo hit: Officers and men of Liberty claim that after the torpedo attack and the abandon ship order, motor torpedo boats strafed the ship’s topside with automatic gunfire preventing men from escaping from below, and either machine-gunned or confiscated the empty life rafts that had been set afloat.[80][81] The IDF claims that Liberty was not fired upon after the torpedo attack and that a rescue raft was fished from the water while searching for survivors.[82]
  • Israeli offers of help: Claims differ about the Israelis offering help. The Liberty‘s captain and the Israelis both claim that help was offered, but at different times. The Liberty‘s Deck Log, signed by the captain, has an entry at 3:03 stating: “One MTB returned to the ship and signalled, ‘Do you need help.’ Commanding officer directed that ‘Negative’ be sent in reply.” The captain testified before the Court of Inquiry, on page 40 of recorded testimony: “One of the boats signaled by flashing light, in English, ‘do you require assistance?’ We had no means to communicate with the boat by light but hoisted code lima india. The signal intended to convey the fact that the ship was maneuvering with difficulty and that they should keep clear.” Liberty‘s logbooks (exhibits attached to Court of Inquiry proceedings) all indicate signal flags were raised at about 3:40 to warn the Israeli boats to stay away, the ship was “not under command.” James Ennes, in his book about the attack, on pages 102 and 103, acknowledges the Israelis offered help, claims it occurred at 4:30, and the offer was rejected. The Israel Defense Forces’s History Report about the attack, on page 19, claims help was offered at 4:30 and the offer was rejected.
 

Protesters at 2007 rally.

  • U.S. rescue attempts: At least two rescue attempts were launched from U.S. aircraft carriers nearby but were recalled, according to the Liberty’s senior Naval Security Group officer, Lieutenant Commander David Lewis. Lewis made an audio recording and later wrote about a meeting 6th Fleet Rear Admiral Lawrence Geis requested in his cabins: “He told me that since I was the senior Liberty survivor on board he wanted to tell me in confidence what had actually transpired. He told me that upon receipt of our SOS, aircraft were launched to come to our assistance and then Washington was notified. He said that the Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara) had ordered that the aircraft be returned to the carrier, which was done. RADM Geis then said that he speculated that Washington may have suspected that the aircraft carried nuclear weapons so he put together another flight of conventional aircraft that had no capability of carrying nuclear weapons. These he launched to assist us and again notified Washington of his actions. Again McNamara ordered the aircraft recalled. He requested confirmation of the order being unable to believe that Washington would let us sink. This time President Johnson ordered the recall with the comment that he did not care if every man drowned and the ship sank, but that he would not embarrass his allies. This is, to the best of my ability, what I recall transpiring 30 years ago.”

See also

Other international attacks on a U.S. Navy ship not at war:

References

  1. ^ a b c Wikimapia.org Tag, http://www.wikimapia.org/#lat=31.3935021&lon=33.3888245&z=10&l=0&m=b
  2. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981.
  3. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 29, 28 & 52).
  4. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 26).
  5. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 57).
  6. ^ a b c d e f John Crewdson (2007-10-02). “New revelations in attack on American spy ship”. Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-liberty_tuesoct02,0,66005.story.
  7. ^ Charles K. Ebinger (2010-06-08). “The Attack on the USS Liberty: Lessons for U.S. National Security”. Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2010/0608_uss_liberty_ebinger.aspx.
  8. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 64).
  9. ^ Mitchell G. Bard, Myths & Facts Online The 1967 Six-Day War, Jewish Virtual Library.
  10. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 1).
  11. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 5).
  12. ^ a b c NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 21).
  13. ^ IDF History Report. p. 22
  14. ^ “The failure of the Israeli navy’s attacks on Egyptian and Syrian ports early in the war did little to assuage Israel’s fears. Consequently, the IDF Chief of Staff, Gen. Yitzhak Rabin, informed the U.S. Naval Attaché in Tel Aviv, Cmdr. Ernest Carl Castle, that Israel would defend its coast with every means at its disposal. Unidentified vessels would be sunk, Rabin advised; the United States should either acknowledge its ships in the area or remove them. The U.S. had also rejected Israel’s request for a formal naval liaison. On May 31, Avraham Harman, Israel’s ambassador to Washington, had warned Under Secretary of State Eugene V. Rostow that if war breaks out, we would have no telephone number to call, no code for plane recognition, and no way to get in touch with the U.S. Sixth Fleet.'” Oren, Michael B. The USS Liberty: Case Closed, Azure, Spring 5760 / 2000, No. 9.
  15. ^ James Scott, The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel’s Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship, Simon & Schuster, 2009. p. 197
  16. ^ Assault on the Liberty. James M. Ennis Jr. (ISBN 0-8041-0108-6) pp. 38-39
  17. ^ a b NSA History Report
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry Court of Inquiry for USS Liberty attack, Record of Proceedings, June 18, 1967
  19. ^ NSA History Report (pp. 21–23)
  20. ^ IDF History Report. p. 7
  21. ^ NSA History Report (p. 25)
  22. ^ Assault on the Liberty. James M. Ennis Jr. (ISBN 0-8041-0108-6) pp. 56–62
  23. ^ http://thelibertyincident.com/docs/israeli/IDF-history-report-en.pdf. pp. 7–8
  24. ^ Assault on the Liberty. James M. Ennis Jr. (ISBN 0-8041-0108-6) p. 62
  25. ^ http://thelibertyincident.com/docs/israeli/IDF-history-report-en.pdf. p. 8
  26. ^ a b c d e f g IDF History Report. page 11
  27. ^ Yerushalmi Inquiry Report. page 3
  28. ^ IDF History Report. page 12
  29. ^ James Scott, The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel’s Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship, Simon & Schuster, 2009. p. 215
  30. ^ NSA History Report, page 28
  31. ^ IDF History Report. p. 13
  32. ^ “While Egyptian naval ships were known to disguise their identities with Western markings, they usually displayed Arabic letters and numbers only. The fact that the ship had Western markings led Rabin to fear that it was Soviet, and he immediately called off the jets. Two IAF Hornet helicopters were sent to look for survivors—Spector had reported seeing men overboard—while the torpedo boat squadron was ordered to hold its fire pending further attempts at identification. Though that order was recorded in the torpedo boat’s log, [the commander,] Oren claimed he never received it.” Oren, Michael B. The USS Liberty: Case Closed, Azure, Spring 5760 / 2000, No. 9.
  33. ^ IDF History Report. p. 16
  34. ^ IDF History Report. p.17
  35. ^ Captain William McGonagle Memorial Arlington National Cemetery
  36. ^ Ram Ron Report Colonel Ram Ron, Israel Defense Forces Inquiry Commission Report, June 16, 1967, p.9
  37. ^ George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, 1990, p. 111. Citing Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, appendix S, p. 285
  38. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson, Vantage Point, p.300–301

    We learned that the ship had been attacked in error by Israeli gunboats and planes. Ten men of the Liberty crew were killed and a hundred were wounded. This heartbreaking episode grieved the Israelis deeply, as it did us.

  39. ^ a b George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, 1990, p. 110–112.
  40. ^ Navy Medal of Honor: Vietnam War (era) 1964–1975, citation for Captain William L. McGonagle, U.S. Navy, accessed May 15, 2006
  41. ^ a b c Even as USS Liberty‘s Heroic Captain Receives New Honor, Coverup of Israeli Attack on His Ship Continues, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 1998 Issue, Pages 26, 88
  42. ^ Congressional Medal of Honor Society, accessed June 20, 2007
  43. ^ Bernton, Hal, “Deadly attack on USS Liberty gets new attention“, Seattle Times, June 9, 2009.
  44. ^ James Scott, The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel’s Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship, Simon & Schuster, 2009. p. 183
  45. ^ U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry USS Liberty pdf
  46. ^ Ram Ron Report Colonel Ram Ron, Israel Defense Forces Inquiry Commission Report, June 16, 1967
  47. ^ IDF History Report.
  48. ^ Navy Captain, Other Officials Call For Investigation Of Israel’s Attack On USS Liberty WRMEA Delinda C. Hanley July/August 2003
  49. ^ Dean Rusk. As I Saw It. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-14-015391-8 page 388
  50. ^ http://www.gtr5.com/
  51. ^ a b http://www.usslibertyveterans.org/
  52. ^ Declaration of Ward Boston, Jr., Captain, JAGC, USN (Ret.) Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 2004, page 10
  53. ^ http://www.thelibertyincident.com/kidd.html
  54. ^ The USS Liberty Attack, Anti-Defamation League, June 9, 2004.
  55. ^ Friendless Fire? United States Naval Institute Proceedings June 2003 Vol. 129/6/1,204
  56. ^ The Attack on the Liberty Hirsh Goodman and Ze’ev Schiff The Atlantic Monthly September 1984
  57. ^ DEAD IN THE WATER BBC Interview with Former Head Israeli Navy 1967, Admiral Shlomo Erell
  58. ^ Daichman, Josef (2001). Mossad: istoria luchshei v mire razvedki. Smolensk: Rusich.
  59. ^ Hot summer of 1967: The Israeli attack on America and the ‘Soviet destroyer.’ Pravda September 14, 2002
  60. ^ George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, Duke University Press, 1990, p. 105–115, Citing Moshe Dayan, Story of My Life, and Nadav Safran, From War to War: The Arab-Israeli Confrontation, 1948–1967, p. 375
  61. ^ George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, Duke University Press, 1990, p. 105–115
  62. ^ LBJ, National Security File, Box 104/107, Middle East Crisis: Jerusalem to the Secretary of State, June 8, 1967; Barbour to Department, June 8, 1967; Joint Embassy Memorandum, June 8, 1967.
  63. ^ Several Liberty crew members testified that they had briefly seen a periscope during the attack. In 1988, the Lyndon Johnson Library declassified and released a document from the USS Liberty archive with the “Top Secret—Eyes Only” security caveat (Document #12C sanitized and released 21DEC88 under review case 86–199). This “Memorandum for the Record” dated 10 April 1967 reported a briefing of the “303 Committee” by General Ralph D. Steakley. According to the memo, General Steakley “briefed the committee on a sensitive DOD project known as FRONTLET 615,” which is identified in a handwritten note on the original memorandum as “submarine within U.A.R. waters.” Further Freedom of Information Act requests returned no existence of a project called “FRONTLET 615”. In February 1997, a senior member of the crew of the submarine USS Amberjack told James Ennes that he had watched the attack through the periscope and took pictures. According to the official ship’s history from the Department of Defense, Amberjack‘s mission between 23 April and 24 July was reconnaissance within U.A.R. When contacted, four crewmen stated that they were so close to USS Liberty when it came under attack that some of the crew believed Amberjack itself was under depth charge attack. August Hubal, Captain of the Amberjack, insists that the vessel was 100 mi (160 km) from the Liberty and when told the crew believed they were closer replied “They must be mistaken”. On July 2, 2003, as a result of a lawsuit using the Freedom of Information Act by Joel Leyden on behalf of the Israel News Agency requesting any evidence that the U.S. submarine Amberjack had gathered by means of its periscope, the National Security Agency stated that there had been “no radio intercepts made by the U.S. submarine Amberjack’“. James Ennes believes that if the submarine photography exists, it should show that the ship’s flag was clearly visible to the attacking fighters and torpedo boats.
  64. ^ Excerpt from Body of Secrets by James Bamford.
  65. ^ Memo from James Bamford regarding criticism of his charges.
  66. ^ Addendum to 2007 Edition, online statement, June 2007.
  67. ^ New evidence for American cover-up of Israeli attack on U.S. warship, BBC, August 6, 2002.
  68. ^ Press, Associated (2003-10-23). “Ex-Navy Official: 1967 Israeli Attack on U.S. Ship Was Deliberate”. Foxnews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,100960,00.html. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
  69. ^ [1]
  70. ^ William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty, 1981. Top Secret Umbra. See page 41 of the report, page 49 of the pdf; see also footnote 4 on same page.
  71. ^ Oren, Amir (2008-10-30). “War from the bottom up”. Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1030925.html. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  72. ^ Body of Secrets, by James Bamford, Doubleday, 2001 (ISBN 0-09-942774-5)
  73. ^ a b Israel’s 1967 attack on U.S. ship deliberate, book says CNN, April 23, 2001
  74. ^ Salans Memo pdf Salans Report September 21, 1967
  75. ^ Assault on the USS Liberty: Deliberate Action or Tragic Accident Colonel Peyton E. Smith March 30, 2007
  76. ^ The USS Liberty Attack Anti Defamation League
  77. ^ The Law of Air Warfare, International Review of the Red Cross. no 323, p.347-363 by Javier Guisández Gómez, 1998
  78. ^ NSA History Report William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, “Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty“, 1981 (p. 29).
  79. ^ The Liberty Incident A. Jay Cristol p. 53.
  80. ^ Assault on the Liberty, James M. Ennis Jr. pp.95 &96.
  81. ^ Declaration of Ward Boston.

    I have examined the released version of the transcript and I did not see any pages that bore my hand corrections and initials. Also, the original did not have any deliberately blank pages, as the released version does. Finally, the testimony of Lt. Painter concerning the deliberate machine gunning of the life rafts by the Israeli torpedo boat crews, which I distinctly recall being given at the Court of Inquiry and included in the original transcript, is now missing and has been excised.

  82. ^ http://thelibertyincident.com/docs/israeli/IDF-history-report-en.pdf. p.19

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