source BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/393075.stm
Cigarettes ‘engineered’ for addiction
Cigarette Additives can make cigarettes more addictive
Tobacco manufacturers have been accused of adding substances to cigarettes to increase their addictiveness so that more people are hooked by the smoking habit.
Anti-smoking groups have called for a clampdown on the practice, claiming that current UK and EU regulation of tobacco additives is inadequate.
ASH and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund say that they have evidence – uncovered by a review of tobacco industry documents – that:
- Additives are used to make cigarettes that provide high levels of ‘free’ nicotine which increases the addictive kick of the product
- Additives are used to enhance the taste of tobacco smoke
- Sweeteners and chocolate are used to make cigarettes more palatable to children
- Eugenol and menthol are added to numb the throat to mask the aggravating effects of tobacco smoke
- Additives such as cocoa are used to dilate the airways allowing the smoke an easier and deeper passage into the lungs
- Additives are used to mask the smell and visibility of smoke that is not breathed in by the smoker
A spokesman for the manufacturers in the UK said the research was based on the situation in the US, and that in the UK 90% of cigarettes contained no additives.
But Dr Martin Jarvis, of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, said: “Outside the tobacco industry no-one knows which additives are used in which brands.
“The tobacco companies’ excuse for using additives is that they make low tar cigarettes easier to smoke.
“We know that low tar cigarettes are just as bad for you as regular cigarettes, so using additives can not be justified.
“As some additives can make cigarettes more addictive, tobacco companies are making it even harder for those smokers wanting to quit to succeed.”
Uncovered a scandal
Clive Bates has called for tighter regulation
Clive Bates, director of ASH, said the research had uncovered a “scandal in which tobacco companies deliberately use additives to make their bad products even worse”.
Mr Bates said: “Without telling anyone, they have been free-basing nicotine and engineering subtle changes to the brain chemistry of the smoker.
“The idea of taking an addictive product and making it more addictive is extremely disturbing.”
The US State of Massachusetts has forced tobacco companies to disclose which additives are used in which brands and why.
The industry has responded by suing.
Dr Gregory Connolly, director of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program, said: “The tobacco industry’s documents raise serious concerns about the way they have engineered cigarettes to be more addictive.
“We are starting to hold them to account in Massachusetts, and they really don’t like it.”
Tobacco industry denies claims
John Carlisle dismissed the claims that UK cigarettes are pumped full of additives
John Carlisle, director of public affairs for the Tobacco Manufacturers’ Association, dismissed the claims as “nonsense and scaremongering”.
Mr Carlisle said the research was based on the situation in the US, and that in the UK 90% of cigarettes consumed contained no additives at all. Those additives that were used came from a list approved by the government, and the majority of those items on the list were never used at all.
“This report is nonsense, a scaremongering tactic to try to frighten consumers,” he said.
“We are doing everything that is asked of us by the government to ensure that we produce a product in which the UK consumer can have total confidence.”
Mr Carlisle said that if anybody was unhappy with the additives that were legally allowable in the UK, then they should complain to government. He would not confirm that additives were not used to increase the addictiveness of cigarettes.
Smoking and disease
Benefits of stopping smoking
- Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing many fatal diseases.
- One year after stopping, the risk of a heart attack falls to about half that of a smoker and within 15 years falls to a level similar to that of a person who has never smoked.
- Within 10-15 years of quitting, an ex-smoker’s risk of developing lung cancer is only slightly greater than that of a non-smoker.
Exposure to other people’s tobacco smoke is also a cause of ill-health. Secondhand smoke has been shown to cause:
- lung cancer and heart disease in adult non-smokers;
- increased sensitivity and reduced lung function in people with asthma;
- irritation of the eye, nose and throat;
- reduced lung function in adults with no chronic chest problems.
- Secondhand smoke exposure also harms babies and children, with an increased risk of respiratory infections, increased severity of asthma symptoms, more frequent occurrence of chronic coughs, phlegm and wheezing, and increased risk of cot death and glue ear.
- It is estimated that globally 600,000 deaths a year are caused by secondhand smoke.
Risk of disease
Smoking causes almost 90% of deaths from lung cancer, around 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema, and around 17% of deaths from heart disease.
About one third of all cancer deaths can be attributed to smoking. These include cancer of the lung, mouth, lip, throat, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver and cervix.
People who smoke between 1 and 14 cigarettes a day have eight times the risk of dying from lung cancer compared to non-smokers.
Smokers under the age of 40 have five times greater risk of a heart attack than non-smokers.
Other health problems linked to smoking
On average women smokers go through the menopause up to 2 years earlier than non-smokers and are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis.
Smoking has been associated with increased sperm abnormalities and is a cause of impotence.
It can affect both your sense of taste and smell. Smokers are more likely to develop facial wrinkles at a younger age and have dental hygiene problems.
Teenage smokers experience more asthma and respiratory symptoms, suffer poorer health, have more school absences and are less fit.
For further Information and sources see ASH’s detailed fact sheets: http://ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats
Planned fact sheet review date: January 2012
The smoke filled room:
How big tobacco influences health policy in the UK
Conflicting points of view
There are two entrenched interests that have opinions about the tobacco industry: (a) participants in the industry, and (b) people affected by the deaths attributable to tobacco use. These interests conflict as they involve large amounts of money, long-held (historically) belief systems, and the premature deaths of loved family members.
Participants in the industry argue that commercial tobacco production is a vital part of the American and world economy. They state that thousands of farmers in the United States, alone, make their living from raising tobacco leaves for use by the industry. They cite the fact that the tobacco industry contributes billions of dollars in tax revenue to the state and federal government every year.
People affected by or sympathetic to the large death rate attributable to active and/or passive tobacco use cite the fact that half of all tobacco users die from tobacco-related causes worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, that means that about 650 million current smokers will die from a preventable cause. They also indicate that smoking-related health problems contribute to rising health care costs.
Information provided by Disabled World – Published: 2011-05-26
List of ingredients found in cigarettes including listing of chemical poisons and cancer producing additives as well as the health effects of a smoking addiction.
Nicotine delivery from tobacco carries an ominous burden of chemical poisons and cancer producing substances that boggle the mind!
The plethora of different ingredients in cigarettes is what makes them so deadly when they are smoked on a regular basis. Below is a list submitted by the 5 major American cigarette companies to the Dept. of Health and Human Services in April of 1994 listing the 599 additives approved by the United States Government for use in the manufacture of cigarettes. Some ingredients are added for flavor, but research has shown that the key purpose of using additives is to improve tobacco’s potency resulting in increased addictiveness.
These cigarette ingredients are approved as additives for foods, but were not tested by burning them, burning often changes a substances properties, sometimes for the worse. Over 4000 chemical compounds are created by a burning cigarette. Depending on the source you will find numbers that state anywhere from 40 – 60 known carcinogenic ingredients in cigarettes known to cause cancer.
Initially, cigarettes were unfiltered, allowing the full “flavor” of the tar to come through. As the public became concerned about the health effects of smoking, filters were added. Filters do not remove enough tar to make cigarettes less dangerous.
Chemicals in cigarettes have been isolated in the urine, digestive juices, and even the cervical mucus of female smokers, so they are transported throughout the body and can do damage anywhere. Most of the chemicals inhaled in cigarette smoke stay in the lungs. The more you inhale, the better it feels – and the greater the damage to your lungs.
The list of additives in cigarettes applies only to American manufactured cigarettes intended for distribution within the United States.
The tobacco companies that reported the information were:
Philip Morris Inc.
Liggett Group, Inc.
Brown and Williamson
American Tobacco Company
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
List of Ingredients and Additives in Cigarettes:
Allspice Extract,Oleoresin, and Oil
Almond Bitter Oil
Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic
Angelica Root Extract, Oil and Seed Oil
Anise Star, Extract and Oils
Apple Juice Concentrate, Extract, and Skins
Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate
Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil
1- Aspartic Acid
Balsam Peru and Oil
Bay Leaf, Oil and Sweet Oil
Beet Juice Concentrate
Benzaldehyde Glyceryl Acetal
Benzoic Acid, Benzoin
Black Currant Buds Absolute
Buchu Leaf Oil
Butter, Butter Esters, and Butter Oil
Butyl Butyryl Lactate
Cardamom Oleoresin, Extract, Seed Oil, and Powder
Carob Bean and Extract
Cascarilla Oil and Bark Extract
Cassia Bark Oil
Cassie Absolute and Oil
Castoreum Extract, Tincture and Absolute
Cedar Leaf Oil
Cedarwood Oil Terpenes and Virginiana
Celery Seed Extract, Solid, Oil, And Oleoresin
Chamomile Flower Oil And Extract
Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Bark Oil, and Extract
Clover Tops, Red Solid Extract
Cocoa Shells, Extract, Distillate And Powder
Cognac White and Green Oil
Coriander Extract and Oil
Costus Root Oil
1-Cysteine Dandelion Root Solid Extract
Dill Seed Oil and Extract
3,7- Dimethyl-6-Octenoic Acid
alpha,alpha Dimethylphenethyl Butyrate
Ethyl Methyl Phenylglycidate
2-Ethyl (or Methyl)-(3,5 and 6)-Methoxypyrazine
2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol, 3-Ethyl -2 –
2-Ethyl-3, (5 or 6)-Dimethylpyrazine
Fennel Sweet Oil
Fenugreek, Extract, Resin, and Absolute
Fig Juice Concentrate
Food Starch Modified
Gentian Root Extract
Geranium Rose Oil
Ginger Oil and Oleoresin
Grape Juice Concentrate
Guaiac Wood Oil
Hydrolyzed Milk Solids
Hydrolyzed Plant Proteins
5-Hydroxy-2,4-Decadienoic Acid delta-Lactone
4-Hydroxy -3-Pentenoic Acid Lactone
4-Hydroxybutanoic Acid Lactone
Immortelle Absolute and Extract
Isoamyl Formate, IsoamylHexanoate
Jasmine Absolute, Concrete and Oil
Kola Nut Extract
Labdanum Absolute and Oleoresin
Lemon Oil and Extract
Licorice Root, Fluid, Extract
Lovage Oil And Extract
Mace Powder, Extract and Oil
Malt and Malt Extract
Maple Syrup and Concentrate
Mate Leaf, Absolute and Oil
Methyl 2-Pyrrolyl Ketone
Methyl Ester of Rosin, Partially Hydrogenated
Methyl Linoleate (48%)
Methyl Linolenate (52%) Mixture
Methyl Naphthyl Ketone
(Methylthio)Methylpyrazine (Mixture Of Isomers)
Mimosa Absolute and Extract
Molasses Extract and Tincture
Mountain Maple Solid Extract
beta-Napthyl Ethyl Ether
Neroli Bigarde Oil
Nutmeg Powder and Oil
Oak Chips Extract and Oil
Oak Moss Absolute
9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid (48%)
And 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic Acid (52%)
Opoponax Oil And Gum
Orange Blossoms Water, Absolute, and Leaf Absolute
Orange Oil and Extract
Orris Concrete Oil and Root
Parsley Seed Oil
Pepper Oil, Black And White
Peruvian (Bois De Rose) Oil
Petitgrain Absolute, Mandarin Oil and Terpeneless Oil
Pimenta Leaf Oil
Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oil, Scotch
Pineapple Juice Concentrate
Pipsissewa Leaf Extract
Prune Juice and Concentrate
Pyroligneous Acid And Extract
Raisin Juice Concentrate
Rose Absolute and Oil
Sage, Sage Oil, and Sage
Sandalwood Oil, Yellow
Styrax Extract, Gum and Oil
Tea Leaf and Absolute
2,3,4,5, and 3,4,5,6-
Thyme Oil, White and Red
Tolu Balsam Gum and Extract
Valerian Root Extract, Oil
Vanilla Extract And Oleoresin
Violet Leaf Absolute
Walnut Hull Extract
Wheat Extract And Flour
Wild Cherry Bark Extract
Wine and Wine Sherry
Because of the extensive list of the ingredients in cigarettes, it is no wonder that this addiction kills more people than any other. And the fact that the habit is so addicting makes it even worse.
Philip Morris: Still More Malignant Than Cancer
In all likelihood, you’ve never heard of Altria Group, Inc., but you’re probably familiar with their former name: Philip Morris Inc. The mega-corporation changed their name in 2003, probably realizing that, in the public mind, the name was permanently stained with Big Tobacco associations: it evokes images of dirty lobbying deals, unethical advertising, suppressed scientific studies, and the 443,000 deaths tobacco causes each year.
After the Master Tobacco Settlement Agreement in 1998, which cost the tobacco industry upwards of $246 billion in settlements, and the passing of several anti-smoking laws and advertising regulations, Philip Morris decided to reinvent itself. The name was the first thing to go. A document from the early nineties shows that the company had considered this move for a while, with executives wanting to be able to market themselves as “a company with a bright future and relatively low risk” to investors. In addition, the name change allowed Altria to fly a little more under the public radar, after years of being vilified as a company that peddled addiction and death.
To be sure, Altria still makes cigarettes. Its tobacco division is still named Philip Morris, and according to a financial report filed in 2006, roughly 65% of Altria’s revenues come from tobacco products. Altria produces about twenty different cigarette brands, including: Marlboro, Parliament, Virginia Slim, Basic, Chesterfield, Benson & Hedges, and a number of international brands like Fortune, Sampoerna A, Champion, and Canadian Classics. It also owns John Middleton brand cigars, and in 2008 bought UST, a “smokeless tobacco” manufacturer that makes Copenhagen and Skoal chewing tobacco.
Altria also has major stakes in food and drink manufacturing. Until 2007, it owned Kraft Food Inc., after which Altria decided to “spin off” the company, selling it off to investors. It still retains ownership of General Foods Inc. In acquiring UST, Altria bought out Ste. Michelle Wine Estates, a maker of premium wines. It also owns 27% of SABMiller, an international beer brewing company that owns Miller, Coors, Blue Moon, and Castle, among many others.
In addition, Altria is one of OpenSecret’s “heavy hitters” in lobbying. It routinely spends over $10 million in lobbying efforts a year, though this is actually far less than it used to spend, particularly in the late 90’s. In the late 90′s, knowing that tobacco regulation reform was inevitable, Altria exerted its considerable influence to use FDA oversight to enhance its corporate image. In this same vein, Altria also supported the 2008 Tobacco Regulation Bill. Meanwhile, behind closed doors, Altria lobbyists worked to defeat legislation that worked in the public’s interest, such as food labeling, recycling, and reducing smoking in the military.
A look at the excellent website Muckety.com shows the web of influence that spreads out from Altria/Philip Morris’s executives. Members of its board of directors also sit on the boards of Virginia Electric and Power Co., Swiss Re, the New York Stock Exchange, HSBC bank, Marriot International, and Western Union. They’ve served in presidential cabinets and as executive editors on The Economist. They’re the chairmen and CEO’s of United Airlines, Chrysler, Citibank, and the Lehman Brothers.
Philip Morris, almost a decade after their makeover and name change, is still just as influential as it ever was. More than ever, the company resembles some kind of malignant tumor, growing and spreading in the unlikeliest of places.
Tobacco Giants Engage in ‘Predatory’ Marketing, Stanford Study Says
June 27th, 2011 Posted in Cigarettes flavors Tags: menthol cigarettes
Teens, minorities and low-income populations are more likely to purchase menthol cigarettes, according to a Stanford study reported Friday.
A study published in Nicotine & Tobacco Research by the Stanford School of Medicine revealed increased tobacco company advertisements and lowered prices of menthol cigarettes in areas highly populated with young African American students.
Researchers wanted to compare the relationship between tobacco company marketing and community demographics.
“We wanted to answer the question: how are community characteristics related to the quantity of advertising for cigarettes, the availability of promotions and the price?” Senior Research Scientist Lisa Henriksen said.
By observing arbitrary convenience stores within walking-distance from California high schools, researchers noted a proportional increase in menthol advertising and African American students present in close vicinity.
“Fundamentally, we observed a different pattern of marketing for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes,” Henriksen said. “Then, we observed the leading brand of non-menthol cigarettes and the pattern suggests that in school neighborhoods with a larger proportion of African American students and a larger proportion of young residents, there were more ads for menthol cigarettes, a greater chance of having a sale on menthol cigarettes [because] the price was lower. It’s not that all cigarettes were cheaper, just menthol cigarettes.”
Scientists identify this practice as “predatory” marketing — advertising targeted at a specific race or ethnicity.
“Previously secret tobacco industry documents reveal a variety of strategies that tobacco companies have used to target African Americans with cigarettes generally, and menthol cigarette advertising specifically,” Henriksen said. “This study is consistent with the evidence revealed in those documents.”
Lorillard Tobacco Company, which produces Newport menthol cigarettes used in the study, has released their documents to the public with the intention of disclosing private information.
In regard to price drops, Lorillard said the reason for lowering prices on cigarettes is to sell less popular brands, according to the company’s website.
“We produce cigarettes for both the premium and discount segments of the domestic cigarette market. Premium brands are well known, established brands marketed at higher retail prices. Discount brands are generally less well recognized brands marketed at lower retail prices.”
The website additionally claims that ethical marketing practices are a top priority for the company.
“The Board of Directors and management of Lorillard Inc. are committed to maintaining and fostering a responsible business environment along with strong Corporate Governance practices, and conducting business in a responsible and ethical manner at all times.”