Free Clean Energy 1

Posted: December 18, 2012 in Uncategorized

Cold Fusion (and its persecution by the establishment

See: http://www.personalgrowthcourses.net/video/cold_fusion (video)

Also see: http://magpower.us/

It takes just 5 seconds to prove it to yourself that this works.
Just search the “U.S. Patent and Trademark Office’s” official website!
Here’s the link: http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm

The patent numbers #5,402,021, #4,877,983, #4,151,431 to see the full patents!

For Your Free Information, and a better World, see below:

1. A magnetic propulsion system comprising:

a vehicle having a rigidly attached magnetic armature, said magnetic armature including a first series of magnets positioned across said vehicle and extending generally from one lateral side of the vehicle to another lateral side of the vehicle, all of the magnets in said first series of magnets being generally parallel to one another;

a first magnetic wall disposed laterally adjacent said vehicle and extending longitudinally along a desired direction of vehicle travel, said first magnetic wall comprising a second series of magnets, each of the magnets in said second series having a particular size and a North-to-South axis pointing in the same direction as the desired direction of vehicle travel, each of said permanent magnets of said particular size in said second series being separated from the next successive permanent magnet in said second series by a thinner magnet, each of said thinner magnets having a pole-to-pole length which is shorter than the lateral width of said magnets of a particular size in said second series, said thinner magnets further having a North-to-South axis pointing perpendicular to the North-to-South axis of said magnets of a particular size in said second series and pointing generally toward a vehicle side of the first magnetic wall; and

a second magnetic wall disposed generally parallel to said first magnetic wall and laterally adjacent to said vehicle but opposite from said first magnetic wall, said second magnetic wall comprising a third series of magnets, each of said magnets in said third series having said particular size and a North-to-South axis pointing in an opposite direction from the desired direction of vehicle travel, each of the permanent magnets in said third series being separated from the next successive permanent magnet of said particular size in said third series by a thinner magnet, each of said thinner magnets in the second magnetic wall having a pole-to-pole length which is shorter than the lateral width of said magnets of a particular size in said third series, said thinner magnets in the second magnetic wall further having a North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets in the first magnetic wall;

wherein said first and second magnetic walls create magnetic fields which exert propelling forces on said armature and thereby cause the vehicle to accelerate in the desired direction of vehicle travel.

2. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein all of the magnets are comprised of permanent magnetic material.

3. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, and further comprising a track disposed between the first and second magnetic walls, said vehicle further comprising at least four wheels for engaging and riding on said track.

4. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein the pole-to-pole length of said thinner magnets in said first magnetic wall is shorter than half the lateral width of the magnets of said particular size in said first magnetic wall.

5. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein the pole-to-pole length of said thinner magnets in said second magnetic wall is shorter than half the lateral width of the magnets of said particular size in said second magnetic wall.

6. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein the thinner magnets in both the first and second magnetic walls, are disposed flush with the outer sides of said first and second walls thereby defining a series of gaps on the internal sides of said first and second walls.

7. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein said first series of magnets are curved permanent magnets, each having a North-to-South axis pointing in the same direction as that of the thinner magnets in the first and second magnetic walls.

8. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 7, wherein said curved permanent magnets are “Alnico 8” magnets tipped with neodymium magnets.

9. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein all the magnets in said second and third series of magnets in said first and second magnetic walls are permanent ceramic magnets with at least one pole made of neodymium.

10. The magnetic propulsion system of clam 1, and further comprising at least one spin accelerator extending laterally out from each of said first and second magnetic walls.

11. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 10, wherein said at least one spin accelerator comprises:

a permanent magnet of a second particular size arranged in contact with one of said first or second magnetic walls, said permanent magnet of a second particular size having a North-to-South axis pointing in the same direction as that of the thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls;

a generally shorter permanent magnet having a pole-to-pole length shorter than that of the permanent magnet of said second particular size, said generally shorter magnet having a North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls but tilted away from said same general direction by an acute angle; and

a wedge separating said permanent magnet of said second particular size from said generally shorter magnet, said wedge defining said acute angle.

12. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 11, wherein said permanent magnet having said second particular size comprises a ceramic magnet having at least one neodymium pole, and said generally shorter permanent magnet is comprised entirely of neodymium.

13. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 11, wherein said wedge comprises wood.

14. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 11, wherein said acute angle is between 45 and 90 degrees.

15. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 11, wherein said spin accelerators are positioned at every other one of said thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls.

16. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein said thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls are comprised of magnetic rubber.

17. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein said thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls are comprised of magnetic plastic.

18. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein said thinner magnets in said first and second magnetic walls are comprised of more than one layer of permanently magnetic material selected from the group consisting of permanently magnetic rubber and permanently magnetic plastic.

19. The magnetic propulsion system of claim 1, wherein the distance separating the armature from the first and second magnetic walls is between 0.5 inch and 1.25 inches.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,151,431 and 4,877,983 to Johnson, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,215,330 to Hartmen, by way of example. According to applicant’s first patent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,151,431), such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement.

According to applicant’s second patent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,877,983), the armature magnet is mounted on a vehicle and guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. According to one embodiment of the second patent, the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity, with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. Several other embodiments are illustrated including variations in the armature structure and in the stator structure; however, all of the embodiments teach use of an annular stator assembly.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved magnetic propulsion system having a plurality of permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets, wherein the permanent magnets need not encircle the path of the magnetic vehicle.

In order to achieve this and other objects, the present invention comprises two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. The walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall.

A first wall, for example, includes a series of generally rectangular magnets, each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel. Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet, which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets.

The pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets. Accordingly, a gap on the inside surface of the wall is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet.

The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets, except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall.

In addition, the propulsion system of the present invention includes several spin accelerators for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle’s armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators.

The spin accelerators project laterally outward from each of the walls at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall. Each spin accelerator comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet which is preferably identical to that of the first and second walls. Each spin accelerator further includes a shorter magnet having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet and a wedge separating the generally rectangular magnet of the spin accelerator from the shorter magnet.

The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator is determined by which pole of the wall’s thinner magnet is facing outwardly. The rectangular magnet’s orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator and the thinner magnet in the wall. Accordingly, the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall. The shorter magnet in the spin accelerator is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet in the wall; but here, an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet is established by the wedge. In particular, the angle of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet in the spin accelerator and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall.

The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets. Each curved magnet is arranged on the vehicle such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets. In particular, the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets in each wall. The vehicle itself is preferably a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track; however, it is understood that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls of the propulsion system.

In operation, the magnetic fields created by the two walls exert a propelling force on the armature of the vehicle in the desired direction of travel. Since the armature of the vehicle is rigidly attached to the vehicle, the vehicle itself begins to accelerate and is hence set in motion by the propulsion system.

Preferably, the curved magnets of the vehicle armature are “Alnico 8” magnets tipped with neodymium magnets. The magnets which constitute the walls and spin accelerators are preferably made of neodymium and ceramic material, except for the thinner magnets. The thinner magnets are preferably made of rubber or plastic, and each can comprise a plurality of magnetic rubber or plastic layers.

Although the present invention has been described with regard to generally rectangular magnets, it is understood that other permanent magnet shapes will suffice, including but not limited to generally cylindrical shapes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of a magnetic propulsion system in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

With reference to FIG. 1, a preferred embodiment of the inventive magnetic propulsion system and vehicle propelled thereby will now be described.

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a propulsion system 10 comprising two parallel magnetic walls 12,14 which are stationary, and an armature 16 rigidly attached to a vehicle 18. The two parallel walls 12,14 are formed from several permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. The desired direction of vehicle travel is indicated by an arrow A in FIG. 1. The two walls 12,14 are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall 12 are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall 14. A first wall 12, for example, includes a series of generally rectangular magnets 20, each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel (indicated by arrow A). Each of the magnets 20 preferably comprises a ceramic magnet with a neodymium north pole. In addition, each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet 20 by a thinner magnet 22. The thinner magnets 22 are arranged with their North-to-South axes pointing laterally toward the opposite wall 14 and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets 20. Each thinner magnet 22 is preferably made from rubber or plastic permanently magnetic material. Also, the pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet 22 is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets 20. Consequently, a gap 24 on the inside surface of the wall 12 is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet 22.

The opposite (or second) wall 14 includes the same general arrangement of magnets 20,22, except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 points in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel, while the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 point away from the first wall 12.

By arranging the thinner magnets 22 between the generally rectangular magnets 20 in the foregoing manner, there is a pole shading effect on the magnets 20 of the walls 12,14.

In addition, the propulsion system 10 of the preferred embodiment includes several spin accelerators 26 for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls 12,14. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle’s armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators.

The spin accelerators 26 project laterally outward from each of the walls 12,14 at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall 12,14. According to the preferred embodiment, the spin accelerators 26 are positioned along the walls 12,14 at every other thinner magnet 22 (as is shown in the middle of FIG. 1). Each spin accelerator 26 comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet 28 which is preferably identical or very similar to that of the first and second walls 12,14. Each spin accelerator 26 further includes a shorter magnet 30 having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet 28 and a wedge 32 separating the generally rectangular magnet 28 of the spin accelerator 26 from the shorter magnet 30. The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 is determined by which pole of the wall’s thinner magnet 22 is facing outwardly. The rectangular magnet’s orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 and the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12,14. Accordingly, the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12,14. The shorter magnet 30 in the spin accelerator 26 is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12,14; but here, an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 is established by the wedge 32. In particular, the angle .alpha. of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet 30 and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12,14. The shorter magnet 30 preferably consists of neodymium.

The magnetic vehicle 18 which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system 10 includes a rigidly attached armature 16 comprising several curved magnets 34. Each curved magnet 34 is arranged on the vehicle 18 such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets 34. In particular, the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets 34 point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 in each wall 12,14. The vehicle 18 itself, according to the preferred embodiment, is a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track 36. It is understood, however, that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls 12,14 of the propulsion system 10.

In operation, when the vehicle 18 is positioned as is shown in FIG. 1, the magnetic fields created by the two walls 12,14 exert a propelling force on the armature 16 of the vehicle 18 in the desired direction of travel (arrow A). Since the armature 16 is rigidly attached to the vehicle 18, the vehicle 18 itself begins to accelerate and hence is set in motion by the propulsion system 10.

Furthermore, since the spin accelerators 26 serve to crowd and thereby intensify the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the walls 12,14, the acceleration of the vehicle is enhanced as the vehicle passes these predetermined positions.

The spin accelerators 26 can be reversed in order to lessen their effectiveness at crowding the magnetic fields. Reversing of the spin accelerators 26 can be accomplished by rotating the spin accelerators 26 so that the shorter magnets 30 tilt away from the intended direction of vehicle travel, rather than in the direction of travel as is the case for the illustrated embodiment.

Preferably, the curved magnets 34 of the vehicle armature 16 are “Alnico 8” magnets tipped with neodymium magnets, while the wedges 32 comprise wood or similar material and an angle .alpha. of 45 to 90 degrees.

The width w.sub.20, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.20 of the generally rectangular magnets 20 in each wall 12,13 are 0.75 inches to 1.25 inches, 3.75 to 4.25 inches, and 1.25 inches to 1.75 inches, respectively. The width w.sub.22, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.22 of the thinner magnets 22 in the walls 12,14 are 1 inch to 1.5 inches, 3.75 inches to 4.25 inches, and no more than one half the width w.sub.20 of the generally rectangular magnets, respectively. In the spin accelerators 26, the width w.sub.28, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.28 of the generally rectangular magnets 28 are 1.125 to 1.625 inches, 3.75 to 4.25 inches, and 0.875 inches to 1.375 inches, respectively, while the width w.sub.32, height, and pole-to-pole length 1.sub.32 of the shorter magnets 30 are 0.75 inch to 1.25 inches, 3.75 inches to 4.25 inches, and 0.125 inch to 0.375 inch, respectively.

Preferably, the distance separating the walls 12,14, is such that each wall 12,14 is 0.5 inch to 1.25 inches away from the tips of the armature magnets 34, both walls 12,14 being equidistant from the tips of the armature 16. Also, the curved magnets 34 of the armature 16 are preferably 0.375 inch to 0.625 inch apart from one another.

Testing of the foregoing prototype propulsion system resulted in the vehicle moving 2 feet in one second.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it is understood that various modifications to this embodiment will become subsequently apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art. In this regard, the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims appended hereto, and not by the illustrated embodiment.

1. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said magnetic stator means including a plurality of magnetic gate assemblies fixedly spaced from each other along said path and respectively establishing stationary magnetic fields, each of said gate assemblies including a plurality of interconnected bar magnets substantially bordering said limited flux zone exposing pole faces of opposite polarity in parallel spaced planes intersected by said path, and magnetic means connected to said interconnected bar magnets exposing one of the flux emitting surfaces of said one polarity perpendicular to said parallel planes for magnetic interaction of the stationary magnetic fields.

2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located, the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means.

3. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles faces thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said armature magnet being curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located, the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means.

4. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path, the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone, said magnetic stator means including a pair of permanent magnet assemblies having continuous, confronting pole faces of said one polarity bordering said limited zone, each of said assemblies having means for varying magnetic field intensity in the flux zone along said path, and a second armature magnet connected to the first mentioned armature magnet in mirror image relation thereto.

5. The combination of claim 4 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located, the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in a plane parallel to said path.

6. In combination with a movable armature, means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet mounted on the armature having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path, the improvement comprising a plurality of permanent magnet gate assemblies mounted in spaced relation to each other along said path establishing interacting stationary magnetic fields along said path, each of said assemblies including stator magnets interconnected in surrounding relation to said path and having pole faces of opposite polarity aligned with parallel planes intersected by said path and magnetic means fixed to the pole faces aligned with one of the parallel planes for interaction of the armature magnet with said stationary magnetic fields for unidirectional propulsion of the armature along said path, said magnetic means being an annular magnet having a radially inner pole surface of one polarity enclosing a magnetic flux zone through which said path extends.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates in general to the use of permanent magnets to generate unidirectional propelling forces.

The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,151,431 and 4,215,330 to Johnson and Hartmen, respectively, by way of example. According to applicant’s own prior Pat. No. 4,151,431, such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement.

It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide certain improved stator arrangements of permanent magnets interacting with a permanent magnet armature for unidirectional propulsion thereof in a novel manner believed to be more efficient.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention, the armature magnet is guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. According to one embodiment, the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity, with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces.

According to another embodiment, the flux zone is formed between continuous confronting pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field of varying intensity along the armature path.

In yet another embodiment, at least two curved bar magnets are interconnected to form the armature with two pairs of pole faces spaced along the armature path.

These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a somewhat schematic side elevational view showing an installation of the present invention in accordance with one embodiment, with parts broken away and shown in section.

FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 2–2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 3–3 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5–5 in FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5–5 in FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a simplified side view through the flux zone shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 with the armature bar magnet positioned therein.

FIG. 8 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with yet another embodiment.

FIG. 9 is an enlarged partial sectional view through a plane indicated by section line 9–9 in FIG. 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the drawings in detail, FIG. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the invention in which a magnetic armature generally referred to by reference numeral 10 is unidirectionally propelled along a predetermined path established by a motion guiding track 12 fixed to a frame or support 14. The path is represented by a line 16 extending through pole faces 18 and 20 of opposite polarity at the longitudinal ends of a curved armature bar magnet 22. The armature 10 in the illustrated example includes a wheeled vehicle mount 24 to which the armature magnet 22 is fixedly secured with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the guiding track 12. The pole faces 18 and 20 are furthermore orientated so that the magnetic field extending between pole faces 18 and 20 is movable therewith within a flux zone 26 limited in surrounding relation to the guided path at spaced locations by stator gate assemblies 28 formed by permanent magnets fixed to the frame support 14.

Each of the stator gate assemblies 28 as shown in FIGS. 1-3, includes four bar magnets 30 interconnected at corners by non-magnetic elements 32, such as triangular wooden blocks as more clearly seen in FIG. 3, to form a rectangular enclosure in surrounding relation to the track 12. Pole faces 34 and 36 between which a stationary magentic field extends are formed on the bar magnets substantially aligned with parallel spaced planes in perpendicular intersecting relation to the path line 16. The pole face 34 of one polarity (north) is effective through its magnetic field to magnetically interact with the magnetic field of the armature magnet 22 causing unidirectional propulsion of the armature 10 as actually observed during tests. Such magnetic interaction is obviously influenced by the pole face 36 of opposite polarity (south) abutting and fixed to an annular or circular ring magnet 38 magnets 30. The interconnected and 38 may be held in assembled relation by an outer skin or sheathing 40 as shown in FIG. 3.

The ring magnet 38 has a radially inner pole surface 42 of the same polarity (north) as that of the pole faces 34 to interact with the other pole faces 36 as aforementioned, to the exclusion of the radially outer pole surface 44. The obvious effect of said arrangement is to exert a net magnetic force on the armature magnet 22 causing the observed continuous, unidirectional propulsion thereof through the gate assemblies 28. Such assemblies 28 are spaced apart distance dependent on the magnetic field intensity or strength of the permanent magnets 30 and 38 which dictate the effective axial extent of the aforementioned magnetic fields associated with the assemblies 28 and the armature magnet 22.

FIGS. 4-7 illustrate another embodiment of the invention utilizing the same type of movable armature 10 guided along a predetermined path by a frame mounted track 12 extending through a flux zone 46 established by another type of permanent magnet stator arrangement, generally referred to by reference numeral 48. The stator 48 includes a pair of permanent magnet assemblies 50 extending in parallel spaced relation to each other on opposite sides of the armature path established by the track 12. Each assembly 50 is a mirror image of the other so as to expose continuous confronting pole surfaces formed by a magnetic layer material 52 such as Neodynium, mounted on interconnected ceramic bodies 54. The confronting pole surfaces of the magnetic layers 52 are of like polarity (north), opposite to the polarity of the pole surface of magnetic layer sections 56 and 58 made of Samarium Cobalt, for example, and carried on the ceramic bodies 54. The bodies 54 have transversely extending flange portions 60 at the abutting ends so as to mount the layer sections sections 58 laterally outwardly of layer sections 56 as more clearly seen in FIGS. 4 and 6 to thereby vary the magnetic field intensity along the guided armature path within the limited flux zone 46 in which the magnetic fields of the stator assembly 48 interact with the magnetic field of bar magnet 22.

The curved armature magnet 22 is orientated within the flux zone 46 between the confronting pole surfaces on 52 as depicted in FIG. 7, with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the track 12 as previously described in connection with FIGS. 1-3. However, it was found that maximum propelling thrust is produced by optimum location of the path line 16 through the pole faces 18 and 20 a distance 62 closer to the upper edge of surface layer 52 than the lower edge on the frame support 14.

FIGS. 8 and 9 illustrate yet another embodiment of the invention involving the same type of permanent magnet stator arrangement 50 as described with respect to FIGS. 4-7. a modified form of armature 10′ is featured in FIGS. 8 and 9, including two curved armature magnets 64 that are mirror images of each other with respect to an intermediate abutting portion 66. The magnets 64 are interconnected at the abutting portion 66 in alignment with a plane containing the path line 16 centrally between the confronting pole surfaces on 52. The end pole faces 68 and 70 for each magnet 64, are aligned with a plane in parallel spaced relation between the path line 16 and the pole surface on 52. With the number of pole faces thereby doubled for the armature, a higher and more efficient propelling thrust may be achieved.

The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be restorted to, falling within the scope of the invention.

1. A permanent magnet motor comprising, in combination, a stator track defining a track direction and having first and second sides and composed of a plurality of track permanent magnets each having first and second poles of opposite polarity, said magnets being disposed in side-by-side relationship having a spacing between adjacent magnets and like poles defining said track sides, an elongated armature permanent magnet located on one of said track sides for relative movement thereto and in spaced relationship to said track side wherein an air gap exists between said armature magnet and said track magnets, said armature magnet having first and second poles of opposite polarity located at the opposite ends of said armature magnet defining the length thereof, the length of said armature magnet being disposed in a direction in general alignment with the direction of said track, the spacing of said armature magnet poles from said track associated side and the length of said armature magnet as related to the width and spacing of said track magnets in the direction of said track being such as to impose a continuous force on said armature magnet in said general direction of said track.

2. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein the spacing between said poles of said armature magnet and the adjacent stator track side are substantially equal.

3. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein the spacing between adjacent track magnets varies.

4. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein a plurality of armature magnets are disposed on a common side of said stator track, said armature magnets being mechanically interconnected.

5. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 4 wherein said armature magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of said track.

6. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein magnetic field concentrating means are associated with said track magnets.

7. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 6 wherein said field concentrating means comprises a sheet of magnetic material of high magnetic field permeability engaging side and pole of said track magnets opposite to that side and pole disposed toward said armature magnet.

8. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein said armature magnet is of an arcuate configuration in its longitudinal direction bowed toward said track, said said armature magnet having ends shaped to concentrate the magnetic field at said ends.

9. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein said stator track is of a generally linear configuration, and means supporting said armature magnet relative to said track for generally linear movement of said armature magnet.

10. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 1 wherein said stator track magnets define a circle having an axis, an armature rotatably mounted with respect to said track and concentric and coaxial thereto, said armature magnet being mounted upon said armature.

11. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 10, means axially adjusting said armature relative to said track whereby the axial relationship of said armature magnet and said stator magnets may be varied to adjust the rate of rotation of said armature.

12. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 10 wherein a plurality of armature magnets are mounted on said armature.

13. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 12 wherein said armature magnets are circumferentially nonuniformily spaced on said armature.

14. A permanent magnet motor comprising, in combination, a stator comprising a plurality of circumferentially spaced stator permanent magnets having poles of opposite polarity, said magnets being arranged to substantially define a circle having an axis, the poles of said magnets facing in a radial direction with respect to said axis and poles of the same polarity facing away from said axis and the poles of opposite polarity facing toward said axis, an armature mounted for rotation about said axis and diposed adjacent said stator, at least one armature permanent magnet having poles of opposite polarity mounted on said armature and in radial spaced relationship to said circle of stator magnets, said armature magnet poles extending in the circumferential direction of armature rotation, the spacing of said armature magnet poles from said stator magnets and the circumferential length of said armature magnet and the spacing of said stator magnets being such as to impose a continuing circumferential force on said armature magnet to rotate said armature.

15. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14 wherein a plurality of armature magnets are mounted upon said armature.

16. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14 wherein said armature magnets are asymmetrically circumferentially spaced on said armature.

17. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14 wherein the poles of said armature magnet are shaped to concentrate the magnetic field thereof.

18. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14, magnetic field concentrating means associated with said stator magnets concentrating the magnetic fields thereof at the spacings between adjacent stator magnets.

19. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 18 wherein said magnet field concentrating means comprises an annular ring of high magnetic field permeability material concentric with said axis and in substantial engagement with poles of like polarity of said stator magnets.

20. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14 wherein said armature magnet is of an arcuate bowed configuration in the direction of said poles thereof defining a concave side and a convex side, said concave side being disposed toward said axis, and said poles of said armature magnet being shaped to concentrate the magnetic field between said poles thereof.

21. In a permanent magnet motor as in claim 14, means for axially displacing said stator and armature relative to each other to adjust the axial alignment of said stator and armature magnets.

22. The method of producing a unidirectional motive force by permanent magnets using a plurality of spaced stator permanent magnets having opposite polarity poles defining a track having a predetermined direction, and an armature magnet having a length defined by poles of opposite polarity movably mounted for movement relative to the track in the direction thereof, and of a predetermined length determined by the width and dimensions of said stator magnets comprising forming a magnetic field track by said stator magnets having a magnetic field of common polarity interrupted at spaced locations in a direction transverse to the direction of said magnetic field track by magnetic fields created by magnetic lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and positioning the armature magnet in spaced relation to said magnetic field track longitudinally related to the direction of the magnetic field track such a distance that the repulsion and attraction forces imposed on the armature magnet by said magnetic field track imposes a continuing unidirectional force on the armature magnet in the direction of the magnetic field track.

23. The method of producing a unidirectional motive force as in claim 22 including concentrating the magnetic fields created by magnetic lines of force between the poles of the stator magnets.

24. The method of producing a unidirectional motive force as in claim 22 including concentrating the magnetic field existing between the poles of the armature magnet.

25. The method of producing a unidirectional motive force as in claim 22 including concentrating the magnetic fields created by magnetic lines of force between the poles of the stator magnets and concentrating the magnetic field existing between the poles of the armature magnet.

26. The method of producing a motive force by permanent magnets wherein the unpaired electron spinning particles existing within a permanent magnet are utilized for producing a motive force comprising forming a stator magnetic field track by means of at least one permanent magnet, producing an armature magnetic field by means of a permament magnet and shaping and locating said magnetic fields in such a manner as to produce relative continuous unidirectional motion between said stator and armature field producing magnets.

27. The method of producing a motive force by permanent magnets as in claim 26 wherein said stator magnetic field is substantially of a single polarity.

28. The method of producing a motive force by permanent magnets as in claim 26 including concentrating the magnetic field of said stator field track and armature magnetic field.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention pertains to the field of permanent magnet motor devices solely using the magnetic fields created thereby to product motive power.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotative or linear motion. Electric motors operate on the principle that when a conductor is located in a magnetic field which carries current a magnetic force is exerted upon it.

Normally, in a conventional electric motor, the rotor, or stator, or both, are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnetics may employ attraction, repulsion, or both types of magnetic forces, to impose a force upon the armature to cause rotation, or to cause the armature to be displaced in a linear path. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components, but in the art heretofore known the use of permanent magnets in either the stator or armature require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the field produced by the permanent magnets, and switching means are employed to control the energization of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields, to produce the motive power.

It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognized or utilized because of incomplete information and theory with respect to the atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the lossless current flow of Amperian currents in permanent magnets. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge and to be located at right angles to the moving electron, and the particle would be very small as to penetrate all known elements, in their various states as well as their known compounds, unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass therethrough.

Ferro electrons differ from those of most elements in that they are unpaired, and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating one themselves. If they were paired, their magnetic fields would cancel out. However, being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins have been oriented in one direction. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields.

In niobium superconductors at a critical state, the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor, and the fact that very powerful electromagnets that can be formed with superconductors illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow.

In a superconducting metal, wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance, the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue, and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation of the magnetized material results in the spins permitting them to continue and for the flux to flow parallel to the metal.

In a superconductor, at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning; later, when critical, the reverse occurs, i.e., the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles. These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal.

In a sense, a permanent magnet may be considered the only room temperature superconductor. It is a superconductor because the electron flow does not cease, and this electron flow can be made to do work because of the magnetic field it supplies. Previously, this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. In a conventional electric motor, switching is accomplished by the use of brushes, commutators, alternating current, or other known means.

In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor, it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places. The best method to accomplish this is to use the superconductor of magnetic flux and concentrate it to the place where it will be the most effective. Timing and switching can be achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields generated by the electron spins. By the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration, it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio, greater than 100 to 1, capable of producing a continuous motive force.

To my knowledge, previous work done with permanent magnets, and motive devices utilizing permanent magnets, have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept, and it is with the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilized as a motive force.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the invention to utilize the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferro magnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner as to permit a motor to be driven solely by magnetic forces as occurring within permanent magnets. In the practice of the inventive concepts, motors of either linear or rotative types may be produced.

It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the force generated by unpaired electron spins existing in permanent magnets to power a motor. Whether the motor constitutes a linear embodiment, or a rotary embodiment, in each instance the “stator” may consist of a plurality of permanent magnets fixed relative to each other in space relationship to define a track, linear in form in the linear embodiment, and circular in form in the rotary embodiment. An armature magnet is located in spaced relationship to such track defined by the stator magnets wherein an air gap exists therebetween. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity, and the length of the armature magnet is disposed relative to the track defined by the stator magnets in the direction of the path of movement of the armature magnet as displaced by the magnetic forces.

The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of like polarity are disposed toward the armature magnet and as the armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets, both attraction and repulsion forces act upon the armature magnet to produce the relative displacement between the armature and stator magnets.

The continuing motive force producing displacement between the armature and stator magnets results from the relationship of the length of the armature magnet in the direction of its path of movement as related to the dimension of the stator magnets, and the spacing therebetween, in the direction of the path of armature magnet movement. This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings, and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets, will produce a resultant force upon the armature magnet which displaces the armature magnet across the stator magnet along its path of movement.

In the practice of the invention movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attraction and repulsion forces existing between the stator and armature magnets. By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified, and in the disclosed embodiments such magnetic field concentration means are disclosed.

The disclosed magnetic field concentrating means comprise a plate of high magnetic field permeability disposed adjacent one side of the stator magnets in substantial engagement therewith. This high permeability material is thus disposed adjacent poles of like polarity of the stator magnets. The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet, and the magnetic field may further be concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends.

Preferably, a plurality of armature magnets are used which are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of armature magnet movement. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component.

In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle, and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets. Means are disclosed for producing relative axial displacement between the stator and armature magnets to adjust the axial alignment thereof, and thereby regulate the magnitude of the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature magnets. In this manner the speed of rotation of the rotary embodiment may be regulated.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The aforementioned objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins,

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins,

FIG. 3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement therethrough,

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of FIG. 3,

FIG. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet,

FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets, and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location,

FIG. 7 is a further elevational view similar to FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left, and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon,

FIG. 8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets,

FIG. 9 is a diametrical, elevational, sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX–IX of FIG. 10, and

FIG. 10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along section X–X of FIG. 9.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept, reference is made to FIGS. 1 through 4. In FIG. 1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2, the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conducting material 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3. In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass therethrough.

The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognized, and superconductors have been utilized to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets. FIG. 2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3.

A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease, and is without resistance, and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which, in the practice of the invention, are utilized to produce motor force. FIG. 3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux therethrough is indicated by arrows 5, the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in FIG. 4, and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material.

By utilizing the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons, it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials, geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction, thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work.

It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilizing the concepts of the invention may take many forms, and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles.

The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from FIGS. 5 through 8. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration, FIG. 8, and so magnetized that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets, as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20, which is preferably of a metal material having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by the Perfection Mica Company of Chicago, Illinois. Thus, the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12, and preferably in direct engagement therewith, although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate, and position the stator magnets with respect to each other.

Preferably, the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends, at any given time, and thus results in a smoother movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. Thus, the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in FIGS. 5 through 8.

In FIGS. 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed, while in FIG. 8 a pair of armature magnets are shown. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in FIGS. 5 through 7.

The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right, FIG. 5, and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28, and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from FIG. 5. For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by beveled surfaces 30 to minimize the cross-sectional area at the magnet ends at 32, and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. In like manner the magnetic fields of the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines.

The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide, guide or track located above the stator magnets, or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a nonmagnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet. To clarify the illustration, the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of invention, and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets, or moving closer thereto, but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets.

It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing therebetween. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of FIG. 5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet, and the north pole field of the sector magnets. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line.

The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in FIG. 5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left, FIG. 5, displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. In FIG. 6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIG. 5. While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets, the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces, tend to move the armature magnet further to the left, and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left.

FIG. 7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of FIG. 6, and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIGS. 5 and 6, and the stator magnet will continue to move to the left, and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12.

Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in FIG. 5, and the south pole is positioned at the left, the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right, and the theory of movement is identical to that described above.

In FIG. 8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44. The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of FIG. 5, but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement, i.e., the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. The use of several armature magnets tends to “smooth out” the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets, resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. Of course, any number of armature magnets may be interconnected, limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22.

In FIGS. 9 and 10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above, but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis, rather than a linear movement being achieved.

In FIGS. 9 and 10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48. The stator member 48 is made of a nonmagnetic material, such as synthetic plastic, aluminum, or the like. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis, and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in FIG. 10. Preferably, the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56, and a convex outer pole surface 60.

The armature 62, in the illustrated embodiment, is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion, and an axially extending portion 64. The armature 62 is formed of a nonmagnetic material, and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power from the armature to a generator, or other power consuming device. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64, and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of FIGS. 5 through 7. The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not disposed as 120.degree. circumferential relationships to each other. Rather, a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to “smooth out” the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in FIG. 8.

The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by antifriction bearings 72, and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52, and may be rotated by the knob 74. In this manner rotation of the knob 74, and shaft 70, axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58, and such axial displacement will very the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature.

As will be noted from FIGS. 4-7 and 9 and 10, an air gap exists between the armature magnet or magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing, effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. If the distance between the armature magents, and the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased, and the resultant force vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases. However, the decreasing of the spacing between the armature and stator magnets creates a “pulsation” in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable, but can be, to some extent, minimized by using a plurality of armature magnets. The increasing of the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet, but also reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. Thus, the most effective spacing between the armature magnets. Thus, the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement, with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation.

In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets, and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes. While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities, it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means.

As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention, the movement of the armature magnet or magnets resultsfrom the described relationship of components. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing therebetween, the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field, combined, produce the desired result and motion. The inventive concepts may be practiced even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. By way of example, with respect to FIGS. 4-7, the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype:

The length of armature magnet 24 is 31/8″, the stator magnets 12 are 1″ wide, 1/4″ thick and 4″ long and grain oriented. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 11/2″ and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately 1/2″ inch.

In effect, the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track.

It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component, and other variations of the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof. As used herein the term “track” is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets, and the “direction” or “length” of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement.

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